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Wednesday, 14 November 2018
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History of Establishment

 

In the early 1980s, it was realized that marine fisheries had experienced a decline. In order to enhance fisheries resources, it was deemed essential that coral reef areas where various commercial fish species live, breed, feed and grow, need to be protected. Coral reef areas are one of the critical habitats because they are exposed to various stressors, which occur naturally or are caused by human activities.
 
In view of the situation, in 1983, the Ex-Prime Minister of Malaysia, Rt. Hon. Tun Dr. Manathir Mohammad directed the Ministry of Agriculture (Department of Fisheries) to establish Marine Parks in the country.
 
The setting up of Marine Parks is provided for under Part 41 through 45 of the Fisheries Act, 1985. The principal goal of establishing Marine Parks in the country is to protect, conserve and manage in perpetuity representative marine ecosystems of significance, particularly coral reefs and their associated flora and fauna, so that they remain undamaged for future generations. In addition, our aim is to inculcate public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment of our marine heritage.
 
The Establishment of Marine Parks Malaysia Order 1994 firmly entrenched the 40 islands as protected area, consisting of the Pulau Redang Archipelago and Pulau Perhentian Archipelago off Terengganu waters, Pulau Payar Archipelago, Kedah, Pulau Tioman Archipelago, Pahang, Pulau Tinggi Archipelago, Johor and the Federal Territory of Labuan Archipelago. According to its First Schedule, "the limit of any area or part of an area established as a marine park shall be at a distance of two nautical miles seaward from the outermost points of the islands specified".
 
Below is a brief history of the step by step establishment of Marine Parks in Malaysia. Stated in also the workshops and projects that the Marine Park Section has organised to improve the managements of our Marine Parks.
 

1983 | 1985 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989 | 1990 | 1991 | 1993 | 1994 | 1996 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007

 
1983
  • It was realised that marine fisheries resources in Malaysia is decreasing and has recognised the important of coral reefs areas as critical habitats zone. An initiative to conserve the natural marine heritage of Malaysia was initiated by Prime Minister, Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, in which he directed the Department of Fisheries to establish Marine Parks in Malaysia.
  • The Fisheries (Prohibited Area) Regulations was enacted under the Fisheries Act, 1963.
  • Pulau Redang, Terengganu was declared as Fisheries Prohibited Area (FPA).
 
1985
  • Waters stretching 3 km from shore and surroundings 22 islands in the states of Kedah, Terengganu, Pahang and Johor were declared as FPA under the Fisheries Act of 1963.
  • Fisheries Act 1985 was enacted, replacing the Fisheries Act 1963, which resulted in declaring another three islands of the coast of Sarawak as FPA, which are areas 3 km off the islands of Pulau Talang-Talang Besar, Pulau Talang-Talang Kecil and Pulau Satang Besar as FPA.
 
1987
  • The National Advisory Council for Marine Parks and Marine Reserves was established under the Ministry of Agriculture through the Fisheries Act, 1985.
  • Marine Park and Marine Reserve Trust Fund was funded.
 
1988
  • Pulau Besar and Tanjung Tuan Melaka was gazetted as FPA under the Fisheries (Prohibited Areas) Regulation (Amendment)(1988).

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1989
  • Marine Parks Malaysia Order 1989 was establish, which resulted in the gazettement of Pulau Payar, Pulau Segantang, Pulau Lembu and Pulau Kaca as Marine Parks.
  • National Marine Parks Malaysia: Policy and Concept was produced.
  • Operational of Pulau Payar Marine Park Centre.
 
1990
  • Operational of Pulau Redang Centre.
 
1991
  • Development of training manual for Marine Park Management with the collaboration of UNDP.

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1993
  • Fisheries Act 1985 was revised which include provisions for gazetting potentials areas as Marine Parks.
  • Operational of Mersing Centre.
  • Development of Training Manual for Coastal Zone Management with the UNDP.
 
1994
  • 38 islands in the state of Kedah, Terengganu, Pahang, Johor and Federal Territory of Labuan were declared and gazetted as Marine Parks Malaysia under the Fisheries Act, 1985, which covers water stretching 2 nautical miles from the shore to the surrounding islands (exception for Pulau Kapas where marine park waters covers one nautical mile seaward from the outermost points of the island – Second Schedule).
  • Tanjung Tuan 1 and Tanjung Tuan 2 were declared as Fisheries Prohibited Areas under Fisheries Regulation (Prohibited Area)(Amendment)(1994), which means collection and killing of shells, corals and fish is prohibited unless requisition is granted.
  • Marine Park Island Management Conceptual Plan for Peninsular Malaysia was produced. A collaborative effort from Marine Park, WWF and Canada Fund Malaysia.
  • Operational of Pulau Tioman Marine Park Centre.
 
1996
  • Publication of the book titled Pulau Redang Marine Park Malaysia with the State Government of Terengganu.

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1998
  • Pulau Nyireh and Pulau Tenggol were gazetted as one of the Terengganu Marine Park Islands under the Establishment of Marine Parks Malaysia Order 1994 (Amendment)(1998) which brings a total of 40 Marine Parks islands in Malaysia.
  • Marine Park Education Kit was produced with a joint collaboration between Marine Park, WWF and Ministry of Education’s Curriculum Development Centre.
  • Marine Park Conservation Fee was established and the first Conservation Fee ticket was printed.
  • Carrying Capacity Assessment of Pulau Payar Marine Park Malaysia was produced. A collaborative effort from Marine Park, WWF and Bay of Bengal Programme.
 
1999
  • Operational of Pulau Tinggi Marine Park Centre.
  • Official collection of Marine Park Conservation Fee in all the Marine Parks.
 
2000
  • Amendment of Establishment of Marine Parks Malaysia Order 1994, where the limit of marine park islands of Pulau Kuraman, Pulau Rusukan Besar and Pulau Rusukan Kecil are at a distance of one nautical miles seaward (Second Schedule).
  • Status report on the Coral Reef of East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia was produced with the collaboration of CCC and UNDP-GEF.

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2002
  • Malaysia Marine Park Terrestrial Conservation Project 2002. Pulau Perhentian Island Ecosystem Resources Assessment Studies Report was produced with collaboration of CCC.
  • Malaysia Coral Reef Conservation Project 2002. Pulau Perhentian Coral Reef Ecosystem Resources Assessment Studies Report was produced with collaboration of CCC.
  • Strategic Plan for the Management of Marine Parks of Malaysia was produced.
 
2003
  • Enactment of Fees (Marine Park of Malaysia) Order 2003.
  • A collaboration project with UNEP-GEF entitle ‘Project on Reversing Environment Degradation Program in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand’ were undergone.
  • Operational of Pulau Perhentian Marine Park Centre.
  • Publication of the book titled Marine Parks of Malaysia: Splendours Beneath the Waves.
 
2004
  • Marine Park Section was shifted from Fisheries Department to a new management under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE).
  • New Vision, Mission, Objectives and Overall Functions for Marine Parks were established under the new Ministry to compliment the overall vision of the Ministry.
  • New Strategic Plan for the Management of Marine Parks of Malaysia was produced.
  • Malaysia Coral Reef Conservation Project 2004. Pulau Redang Coral Reef Ecosystem Resources Assessment Studies Report was produced with collaboration of CCC.

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2005
  • Malaysia Coral Reef Conservation Project 2005. Pulau Payar Coral Reef Ecosystem Resources Assessment Studies Report was produced with collaboration of CCC.
 
2006
  • On 14th of June 2006, Minister Council meeting approved the memorandum from Natural Resources and Environment Minister on the formation a Department or new agency responsible to manage and administer Marine Protected area especially Malaysia Marine Park area. This department would be known with the name Department of Marine Park Malaysia or with abbreviation DMPM.
 
2007
  • Effective on 16th of July 2007, Marine Park Section officially it becomes Department of Marine Park Malaysia with job growth as many as 154 new positions in addition to 86 present posts.

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FPA - Fisheries Prohibited Areas;
MP - Marine Parks;
UNDP - United Nation Development Programme;
CCC - Coral Cay Conservation;
GEF - Global Environmet Facilities;
GCRMN - Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network.
 
 
 
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